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What is the Cause and Effects?

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Cause and Effects reasoning questions are all about determining whether a given event is the cause or the effect of some event. Questions are designed to basically test the analytical and logical ability of a candidate. So in short, Cause in the logical or scientific reason of an event that has occured and effects to this cause are the consequences of the event. 

Two statements will be provided, and candidates need to decide whether the statements given are independent causes or effects of independent cause, or is it simply a common cause. The necessary condition for an event to occur is a cause, which supplements an event to occur. For a cause to be valid, it must be either sufficient or necessary. 

Necessary Conditions for an event to take place is that condition without which the event will not occur, whereas in case of a Sufficient Condition an event to take place is that condition under whose influence the event must occur. Let us now understand the various types of questions that are being asked from the Cause and Effects reasoning section from below. 

Types of Cause and Effects

As we know what consists of the questions related to the Cause and Effects reasoning section. Let us see the various types of Cause and Effects one by one below. 

1. Immediate Cause 

An immediate cause is a type of cause that has occurred most recently. It immediately precedes the effect. In other words, immediate causes are the most proximate in time to the effect. 

2. Principle Cause 

The principle cause is the cause, which is the main cause responsible for any event. An Immediate cause may or may not be the principal cause. In other words, Principle cause is the most important reason behind an effect. 

3. Independent Cause

This is the cause, which is not related to any given events of the question. In other words, an independent cause doesn’t have a direct or indirect relationship with the effect given. The effect in this case may be caused by a third unmentioned event.

How to Solve Question Based on Cause and Effects – Know all Tips and Tricks 

Candidates can find various tips and tricks from below for solving the questions related to the Cause and Effects reasoning section. 

Tip # 1: Principle and immediate cause sound similar but there is a difference between principle and immediate cause. The principal cause is the main and most important reason for the effect, while the immediate cause is the most proximate in time to the effect. 

Tip # 2: If both events are in present perfect tense, then it cannot be decided which one is antecedent to whom. Therefore, candidates need to check any common connection between two statements. 

Tip # 3: If the first statement is in present perfect tense and statement two is in future tense, then statement 1 will be antecedent to statement 2 and that is why statement 2 cannot be the cause of statement 1. 

Tip # 4: If the first statement is in present perfect and statement two is in present continuous, then statement 1 should have occurred before statement 2 and that is why statement 1 cannot be the cause of statement 2. 

Cause and Effects Sample Questions 

Question 1: 

Statements: 

(a) The hospital has banned the use of cell phones by doctors when they are attending to the patients in the OPD.

(b) The patients’ Union complained to the management that the cell phones of the doctors kept ringing and doctors got busy answering their calls reducing the attention they should be giving to the patients. 

Solution: Here the complaint of the patients regarding the cell phone use by doctors prompted the ban by the hospital management. Hence, we can easily say that the statement (b) is the cause and statement (a) is the effect.  

Question 2: 

Statements: 

(a) Kartik resigned from the office. 

(b) Kartik wants to marry his childhood friend Monika. 

Solution: Here we can easily say that statement (a) and (b) are the effects of some independent causes. As Kartik resigned from the office and Kartik wants to marry his childhood friend Monika is not related to each other.

The reasoning behind the resignation from the office is not stated in the statement (b), which is an independent statement regarding the personal life of Kartik. Statement (a) is related to the professional life of Kartik. 

Question 3: 

Statements: 

(a) A study has shown that whatever form of entertainment a person is exposed to in his/her formative years stays on with him/her for the rest of his/her life. 

(b) The young generation is always reminded by the old generation that the current level of entertainment is inferior to the old times. 

Solution: Here the statement (a) states the mentality behind the liking for a certain form of entertainment over a long period of time, whereas the statement (b) gives an example of it. Hence, this exhibits a cause and effect relationship between the two statements where the statement (a) is the cause and the statement (b) is the effect. 

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