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What is Inductive Reasoning?

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Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations. Basically, there will be data which will be given, then conclusions need to be drawn from the data. The reasoning is also known as inductive logic. Important topics that come under inductive reasoning are Statement & Conclusion, Statement & Assumption, Statement & Argument, Statement & Course of Action, Cause and Effects and so on. Let us understand each one of them one by one from below. 

Types of Inductive Reasoning 

Let us see the various types of Inductive Reasoning Questions one by one from below. 

1. Statement & Conclusion

Statement and Conclusion reasoning is a very important section of Analytical Reasoning, where passage or statements will be given followed by some conclusions. Candidates need to take decisions based on these statements and select the correct conclusion from the given ones. Here, conclusion refers to the fact that can be truly inferred from the given statement.

Given below is a sample question for statement and conclusion inductive reasoning:

Sample Question:
Statement: “All living beings require water to survive.”

Conclusion: “Plants also require water to survive.”

Is the conclusion valid based on the statement?

A) Yes, the conclusion is valid.
B) No, the conclusion is not valid.

Answer:
A) Yes, the conclusion is valid.

Explanation:
The statement establishes a general fact that all living beings require water to survive. Since plants are living beings, it can be inferred that plants also require water to survive. 

2. Cause & Effects

Cause & Effects questions are all about determining whether a given event is the cause or the effect of some event. In this type of inductive reasoning questions, they are designed to basically test the analytical and logical ability of a candidate. So in short, Cause in the logical or scientific reason of an event that has occured and effects to this cause are the consequences of the event.

Given below is a sample question for cause and effect inductive reasoning:

Sample Question:
Cause: “The company introduced flexible work hours for its employees.”

Effect: “Employee satisfaction and productivity increased.”

Is the cause and effect relationship logical?

A) Yes, the cause and effect relationship is logical.
B) No, the cause and effect relationship is not logical.

Answer:
A) Yes, the cause and effect relationship is logical.

Explanation:
The cause (introduction of flexible work hours) directly affects the effect (increase in employee satisfaction and productivity), as flexible work hours are known to positively impact employee satisfaction and performance.

3. Statement & Assumption

An assumption is something that we take for granted, or we assume. In various government exams, candidates will be given some statements followed by some assumptions. By reading the given statements, candidates need to take the right decision. Here taking the right decision means selecting the correct assumption.

Given below is a sample question for statement and assumption inductive reasoning:

Sample Question:
Statement: “The event requires an entry fee for participants.”

Assumption: “Participants are willing to pay the entry fee.”

Is the assumption implicit in the statement?

A) Yes, the assumption is implicit.
B) No, the assumption is not implicit.

Answer:
A) Yes, the assumption is implicit.

Explanation:
The statement assumes that participants are willing to pay the entry fee, as it mentions the requirement of an entry fee for participation.

4. Statement & Argument

Argument is a point of view on a particular matter supported by certain evidence. The candidate is required to check the forcefulness of the given argument such as if they are weak or strong. In technical terms, an argument may be said to be a sequence of two or more phrases, clauses, sentences that includes claim or conclusion. Such conclusion is arrived at with the help of one or more than one statement, which may be called premise or proposition.

Given below is a sample question for statement and argument inductive reasoning:

Sample Question:
Statement: “Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health.”

Argument: “People who exercise regularly have lower chances of heart diseases.”

Is the argument valid based on the statement?

A) Yes, the argument is valid.
B) No, the argument is not valid.

Answer:
A) Yes, the argument is valid.

Explanation:
The argument is valid because it builds on the statement’s premise that regular exercise improves cardiovascular health. It presents a logical connection between exercising regularly and reducing the risk of heart diseases.

5. Statement & Course of Action

In Statement and Course of Action Reasoning, a situation will be given as a statement and some probable course of actions will be given in the context of that situation. Candidates will be asked to determine, which of them should be followed based on the given statement or event. The given course of action will be true if it does solve or reduce or minimize the problem and if it is a practical solution.

Given below is a sample question for statement and course of action inductive reasoning:

Sample Question:
Statement: “Traffic congestion has increased in the city due to inadequate road infrastructure.”

Course of Action: “The city administration should invest in expanding road networks.”

Is the course of action appropriate based on the statement?

A) Yes, the course of action is appropriate.
B) No, the course of action is not appropriate.

Answer:
A) Yes, the course of action is appropriate.

Explanation:
The course of action directly addresses the cause (inadequate road infrastructure) mentioned in the statement (traffic congestion). Expanding road networks can help alleviate traffic congestion and is a logical response to the problem.

Inductive Reasoning Vs Deductive Reasoning

The differences between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning is tabulated below.

Deductive ReasoningInductive Reasoning
It is a logical process where a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true.It is a logical process where multiple premises that are assumed true are combined to obtain a specific conclusion.
It varies from general to specific.It varies from specific to general.
It is a top down approach.It is a bottom down approach.
Its conclusion is true if the premises are true.The conclusion may not be true although the premises may be true.
It is based on facts, truth, or rules.It is based on patterns or connections.
It is more difficult to use as it is based on true facts.It is used in daily life as it is based on evidence rather than facts.

How to Solve Question Based on Inductive Reasoning – Know all Tips and Tricks 

Candidates can find various tips and tricks from below for solving the questions related to the Inductive Reasoning section. 

Tip # 1: Read the question thoroughly and understand the meaning of statement/s given in the question to draw the conclusion from it. 

Tip # 2: Write the statement in your own words, or draw graphical representations to understand the question better. 

Tip # 3: Practice mock tests and quizzes as much as possible to get well versed with all the topics and their question patterns to score well in the inductive reasoning section. 

Inductive Reasoning Sample Questions

Question 1: 

Statement: A mid-day meal scheme is not a perfect solution to the nutrition problem, but has the added advantage of providing an incentive for parents to send their kids to school.

Conclusion: Mid-day meal scheme will improve the school attendance of children.

Solution: We can assume that free food usually attracts people. Under this

assumption, we may consider it likely that more parents would send their children to school. Hence, this inference is probably true.

Question 2: 

Statements:

India is a country of multiple languages.

Conclusions:

  1. All Indians should learn multiple languages.
  2. Every country has multiple languages

Solution: The statement says that India is a country of multiple languages, but it does not express the need for every Indian to learn multiple languages.

Also, the statement gives information about only one country.

Both conclusions are irrelevant as it is not relevant to the statement. 

Hence, neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows.

Question 3: Based on Cause & Effect 

Statements: 

(a) Kartik resigned from the office. 

(b) Kartik wants to marry his childhood friend Monika. 

Solution: Here we can easily say that statement (a) and (b) are the effects of some independent causes. As Kartik resigned from the office and Kartik wants to marry his childhood friend Monika is not related to each other. The reasoning behind the resignation from the office is not stated in the statement (b), which is an independent statement regarding the personal life of Kartik. Statement (a) is related to the professional life of Kartik. 

Question 4: Based on Cause & Effect 

Statements: 

(a) A study has shown that whatever form of entertainment a person is exposed to in his/her formative years stays on with him/her for the rest of his/her life. 

(b) The young generation is always reminded by the old generation that the current level of entertainment is inferior to the old times. 

Solution: Here the statement (a) states the mentality behind the liking for a certain form of entertainment over a long period of time, whereas the statement (b) gives an example of it. Hence, this exhibits a cause and effect relationship between the two statements where the statement (a) is the cause and the statement (b) is the effect.

Question 5: 

Statement: “The party will start at 6 p.m. You are requested to take your seats before 6 p.m.” – last sentence in an invitation card.

Assumption: The party will start as scheduled.

Solution: Since the card says that the invitee should take his seat before 6:00 p.m., it implies that the party will start as scheduled. It has the invitee who will have to see that he/she reaches before 6:00 p.m.

Question 6: 

Statement: It rained last night. The ground must have become wet.

Assumption: When it rains the ground becomes wet.

Solution: As we know, things get wet when they come in contact with water. So when it rains, the ground gets wet due to water. So this is a valid assumption.

Question 7: 

Statement: Should non-vegetarian food be totally banned in our country?

Argument: Yes, it is expensive and therefore beyond the means of most people in our country.

Solution: Logically this argument is probable because non-vegetarian food is ex- pensive and therefore, it is beyond the means of most people in our country. But only for this reason, a ban on non-vegetarian food is not desirable. So this argument is weak.

Question 8: 

Statement: Should learning self-defense be made compulsory for girl students?

Argument: Yes, in an environment where cases of assault on women are increasing, self-defense training becomes one essential part of women safety.

Solution: This is strong, because since cases of assault are increasing self- defense is useful for women.

Question 9: 

Statement: According to the news, few terrorists are hiding inside an old building in Delhi.

Courses of action:

I: Government should send Special Forces to Delhi.

II: Government should offer them to shift to the outskirts of Delhi.

Solution:  After knowing the fact that the terrorists are hiding at a certain place, the Government should send special forces immediately.

Knowing that approaching that area will be dangerous, the police should be backed up with special forces as well.

Therefore, the first course of action definitely will be a good measure taken in ac- cordance with the given statement.

On the other hand, the second course of action is vague and totally unrealistic. It is practically not possible to achieve such an action.

Therefore, offering them to shift somewhere is completely out of question. Hence, II does not follow.

Question 10: 

Statement: Studies have shown that spending too much time on your phone is bad for your focus and mental health.

Courses of action:

I: Most of the push notifications should be turned off.

II: One should get a real alarm clock and avoid taking the mobiles to bed.

Solution: The first course of action follows as the statement tells us about the fact that excessive use of the phone can be bad for our health. And the best action to be taken in this direction is to avoid using mobile phones. No one can deny that mobiles these days are an essential tool, which we can’t stop using completely.

Therefore, the first course of action provides us with a solution to turn off the notifications, so that we avoid much of the unnecessary use of the phone.

Hence, I follow.

Hence both the actions follow.

At the same time, most of the people say that they carry mobile phones to bed because they need the alarm.

But in this context, they end up using the mobile applications till late night.

The second course of action follows as it suggests getting a real alarm, and avoiding taking the phone to bed.

This is the best possible way to avoid using the phone at night. Hence both the actions follow.

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